TO DECIDE

When we look from the past to the present, it is seen that human beings are in a “decision making” state in many stages of their lives. Each decision to be made may have a desired result, or it may confront the decision maker with undesirable situations. For this reason, the decision making process must be carried out correctly.

When we examine the successful decisions taken today, we basically see that information is used correctly. Today’s executives are now aware of what the correct use of information brings in organizations or institutions in the competitive environment in which they are involved. This is why; Our age managers accelerate the achievement of the strategic goals of organizations or institutions by investing in information technologies.

While one of the biggest problems faced by the managers of the past in the decision-making process is gathering information, the biggest problem faced by today’s managers in the decision-making process has changed from the collected data to making meaningful conclusions. The amount of data collected at this stage is also important. As the amount of data increases, it becomes more difficult for decision makers to understand and interpret this data. In order to solve this problem, decision makers need systems that will extract the necessary information from the data stacks they have and show the hidden patterns and patterns between the data.

In recent years, the use of decision support systems has become widespread in the decision making process of decision makers. Decision support systems developed and offered to the use of decision-makers enable end users to easily access the data in or out of organizations or institutions. In this way, fast and timely access to the information needed helps institutions to make decisions in a timely manner, thereby improving efficiency and quality of decisions.

No single definition has yet been adopted worldwide for decision support systems (DSS). However, if we make a general definition, decision support systems are computer-based information systems that do not decide on their own and assist decision makers by making their decision making skills.

    DEVELOPMENT OF DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM 

Different decisions are taken at different management levels in businesses. The decisions made at the operational level are structured decisions. If the method to be followed when the decision is necessary can be specified in advance, this is called a structured decision. The tactical decisions are semi-structured. When part of the method to be followed when the decision is taken is not clear but sufficient, this is called a semi-structured decision. Decisions made at the strategic level are unstructured decisions. It is not possible to predict a large part of the method to be followed when making a decision.

Decision support systems are computer-aided information systems that provide interactive information support to managers during the decision making process. These systems use analytical models, private databases, the decision-maker’s own views and provisions, and interactive computer-based modeling process to support making business decisions that are semi-structured or unstructured. Therefore, these systems are fast-response systems designed for a specific purpose, initiated and controlled by decision-makers in businesses. Decision support systems directly support certain types of decisions, the style of personal decision making and the personal needs of middle and senior managers.

Decision Support System Components

Mistakes People Make When Making Decisions:

  • Not expressing well
  • The effects of innovations
  • Priority effects
  • Poor Probability Prediction
  • Over Confidence
  • Intellectual assembly bias

Decision Support System does:

  • Structuring decision processes
  • Repeated decisions
  • Organizational planning
  • Organizational control
  • Automating decisions
  • Supporting analytical work
  • Providing background data
  • Information for executives and managers
  • Scan the media

Benefits of Decision Support Systems:

  • Increase in the number of alternatives tested
  • Understanding the business better
  • Quick response in unexpected situations
  • Instant analysis capability
  • New insights and learning
  • Advanced communication
  • Control
  • Reduce cost
  • Better decisions
  • More effective teamwork
  • Saving time
  • Using data sources better

Sample decision support system topics in the field of Management and Finance:

  • Choosing a seller for a purchase
  • Choosing a marketing campaign for a product
  • Choosing a career
  • Determining the performance of an employee
  • Analysis of investment alternatives

    Decision Support System Types 

  • Data feeding systems
  • Forecasting systems
  • Preference determination systems
  • Scenario development systems

Data feeding systems: Used to analyze previous data or instant reports.

  • File Extraction Systems
  • Data Analysis Systems
  • Information Execution Systems

Forecasting Systems: The situation is carried forward to alternative future times and the future is seen

  • Descriptive Systems
  • Causal Systems
  • Probability Systems

Preference Setting Systems: Allows to choose between alternatives and previous decisions

  • Decision tree systems
  • Multi-featured decision systems

Scenario Development Systems: It assumes creative tasks in decision making apart from analysis. Comprehension planning systems

  • Idea generation systems
  • Group decision support systems

    Web Based Decision Support Systems

Decision Support Systems are interactive and computer-based systems that provide support to the decision maker to solve complex and unstructured problems with the help of databases or data models.

Decision Support Systems  according to the definition made by Ralph Sprague and Eric Carlson in his work titled “Building Effective Decision Support Systems” which was accepted as a milestone in this field  ; It is a type of information system that uses motion processing systems and interacts with other parts of the general information system to assist decision making processes of managers and other information workers in the organization.

Web Based Decision Support Systems (WKDS), on the other hand, is also a Decision Support System (KDS), which can be seen as a multi-disciplinary research field that occurs with the integration of special fields such as computer science, information systems and web technologies.

In general, the subject of Web Based Decision Support Systems is to investigate how support can be provided in decision making processes in various human activities by using the web interface.

Thanks to the fact that information is stored on web servers instead of a personal computer, it is much easier for people doing the same job around the world to work together. Web applications; The responsiveness offers rich features such as a level of functionality comparable to desktop applications. Web services; functionality allows you to quickly and easily incorporate from existing applications and websites into your own applications. KDSs developed with these features brought by the web offer us new possibilities on distributed infrastructure. Thanks to WKDS, managers or corporate employees, who are located in different locations geographically, can access information about decision-making processes more easily and less costly.

Today, in the information age, with the Internet allowing billions of users to share information on the world-wide-web, information sharing has been taken to new heights. It is inevitable that KDSs, which have an important place in the efficient functioning of organizations with the information age, have been arranged to work on the web.

For many reasons, an in-house network architecture created with web architecture or web technologies is a logical choice to be used to develop modern and functional KDS applications. The information technology platform used predominantly in institutions; It varies from host and local network based client-server systems to web and internet technologies. In the light of these developments, internet and world-wide-web have a large share in the transmission and sharing of decision support information. Considering this interest in the web; It can be said that there are many ongoing initiatives for the development and implementation of web based KDS in areas such as health, education, government and private sector.

 EXAMPLES OF WEB BASED DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR ANALYSIS OF     TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

people emergent diseases or injuries of the situation in Turkey to reach the scene along with a medical team as soon as possible, make the first intervention in place and in order to reach as soon as possible to the center can receive the medical help that requirement if necessary 112 Emergency Service has been started. In order to reach the scene or to transport the patients to the nearest health center, it is necessary to reduce the risks that may arise as a result of the wrong decisions of the decision makers. The purpose of this study; To create an interface to ensure control and follow-up of ambulance services before and after the intervention by creating a Decision Support System for traffic accidents. The study carried out for the İzmir metropolitan area border, provides user-friendly interfaces with the opportunity to present and analyze spatial data together with verbal data. In this way, delays in reaching the crime scene or transporting the patient to the nearest health center can be determined and support is taken to take decisions regarding the measures to eliminate these problems.

   Web Based Clinical Decision Support Systems

Clinical studies are the main source of information to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of medical treatments. These studies are of great importance in evidence-based medicine, but there is a lack of useful information systems that provide data analysis and decision support capabilities for all clinical study results. Clinical decision support systems (KKDS) are interactive software systems designed to assist physicians in decision making processes such as diagnosis based on patient data. It offers a wide range of services to its users with its modern clinical decision support systems capabilities. World Wide Web technologies completely changed the design, development and implementation structure of decision support systems. This article summarizes the latest technological developments about KKDS and the current structures of Web-based KKDS.

General architectural structure of web-based clinical decision support systems

Partial architectural structure of web-based clinical decision support systems

Design and Development of a Web Based Spatial Decision Support System

Estate; it is a gateway to education and health, social and job opportunities. Therefore, choosing a property is also a decision that has an important role in human life. In this decision process, in order to give an idea to real estate buyers and sellers, real estate agents and other interested parties, in this study, the Central District of Elazig province was selected as a pilot region and a Real Estate Value Map was developed as a web-based Spatial Decision Support System application. In the study, the spatial data storage job was carried out using PostgreSQL, a georelated relational database, and its plug-in PostGIS. To model and display spatial data, GeoServer was used as a map and geographic information server. While real estate values ​​are calculated based on weighted factor scores method, Geographical data inquiries to calculate factor scores were carried out in Java and Harmonic Search Algorithm was written in Matlab to determine factor weights. In real estate valuation, realistic results with acceptable error rates were obtained. The calculated real estate values ​​are presented to the user with a web-based interface prepared using Java and JavaScript technologies. As a result, a web-based Spatial Decision Support System that allows spatial data to be used in the decision making process was developed and the results were presented to the user through online maps. lifelike results were obtained. The calculated real estate values ​​are presented to the user with a web-based interface prepared using Java and JavaScript technologies. As a result, a web-based Spatial Decision Support System that allows spatial data to be used in the decision making process was developed and the results were presented to the user through online maps. lifelike results were obtained. The calculated real estate values ​​are presented to the user with a web-based interface prepared using Java and JavaScript technologies. As a result, a web-based Spatial Decision Support System that allows spatial data to be used in the decision making process was developed and the results were presented to the user through online maps.

System architecture of Real Estate Value Map application

    Web Based Intensive Care Decision Support System

Clinical Decision Support Systems (KKDS) draw attention as the tools that play an important role in making the right diagnosis and treatment decisions of physicians in recent years. There is an increasing need for Decision Support Systems (DSS) especially in departments such as Intensive Care Units where medical processes are complex, lots of data are produced and patient-specific critical decisions are made with this data. Web-Based KDSs can provide the necessary information at a level of content appropriate for the user, at a personal speed. In this study, a web-based interactive system that will support patient admission, diagnosis and treatment decisions has been developed and evaluated by considering the preferences of intensive care physicians. Developed website; It consists of four main sections: decision support, clinical guides, scores and scales, links. The topics that physicians need most were determined by the survey method, content was created with the help of a specialist physician and turned into an algorithm form. With these systems, which are converted into the form of KKDS and presented interactively, it is aimed to alleviate the workload of specialist physicians and to enable the physicians to access the necessary information at the bedside and direct the treatment correctly. In the clinical guides section of the site, some important intensive care treatment approaches are included. In addition, the academic resources and links that intensive care physicians use with the score calculations and scales used to determine the clinical condition of the patient are presented on the site. Intensive Care Decision Support Website has been evaluated with quantitative and qualitative research techniques. As a result, the website improves the accuracy of the decisions (p <0, 001) but did not change the decision-making time (p = 0.198). In addition, the usability of the site and the rate of appreciation by physicians was found high. Intensive Care Decision Support Website is published on the server provided by Akdeniz University Hospital IT Department. The website can also be accessed from the Intensive Care Information System.

Sample screenshot for patient admission algorithm